- I. Định nghĩa
- II. Các đại từ quan hệ (Relative Pronouns)
- III. Các trạng từ quan hệ (Relative adverbs)
- IV. Các loại mệnh đề quan hệ
- V. Giới từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ
- VI. Cách biến đổi mệnh đề quan hệ
- VII. Bài tập
- VIII. Đáp án
Chào các bạn, hôm nay Kienthuctienganh xin phép chia sẻ một chuyên đề ngữ pháp trọng điểm mà bất kì người học tiếng Anh nào cũng cần phải biết, bởi nó không chỉ xuất hiện trong giao tiếp hằng ngày mà còn trong các loại bài test tiếng Anh khác. Đó là Mệnh đề quan hệ.
Trong khuôn khổ bài viết này, chúng ta sẽ cùng nhau tìm hiểu các nội dung chính như định nghĩa, các loại mệnh đề quan hệ, đại từ quan hệ, giới từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ và cách biến đổi mệnh đề quan hệ. Ngoài ra, bạn đọc có thể tham khảo thêm phần rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ để có thể master điểm ngữ pháp này!
I. Định nghĩa
II. Các đại từ quan hệ (Relative Pronouns)
- Who làm chủ ngữ:
The man who is sitting by the fire is my father. (Người đàn ông đang đứng bên đống lửa là bố tôi.)
- Who làm tân ngữ:
The man who I am talking to is my father. (Người đàn ông mà tôi đang nói chuyện là bố tôi.)
The woman whom you saw yesterday is my aunt.
= The woman you saw yesterday is my aunt. (Người phụ nữ mà tôi gặp hôm qua chính là cô tôi.)
- Which làm chủ ngữ:
The book which is black is mine. (Quyển sách màu đen là của tôi.)
- Which làm tân ngữ:
This is the doll which my parents gave me on my birthday. (Đây là con búp bê mà bố mẹ đã tặng tôi trong ngày sinh nhật.)
- Which thay cho cả mệnh đề đứng trước:
He said that he loved her, which made her happy all day. (Anh ta nói rằng anh ta yêu cô ấy, điều này đã khiến cô gái vui cả ngày.)
This is the dress that I bought yesterday. (Đây là chiếc đầm mà tôi mua hôm qua.)
Các trường hợp bắt buộc dùng that:
Các trường hợp không dùng that:
The boy whose leg was broken is my son. (Thằng bé mà bị gãy chân là con trai tôi.)
* Đối với Of Which:
This is my dog the fur of which is so nice. (Đây là con chó của tôi, bộ lông của nó rất đẹp.)
III. Các trạng từ quan hệ (Relative adverbs)
I’ll never forget the day when I met her. (when = on which) (Tôi sẽ không bao giờ quên cái ngày mà tôi gặp cô ấy.)
That is the house where we used to live. (where = in which) (Đó là ngôi nhà mà chúng tôi từng sống.)
I don’t know the reason why I love him. (why = for which) (Tôi không biết lý do tại sao tôi lại yêu anh ấy.)
IV. Các loại mệnh đề quan hệ
1. Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định (restrictive/ defining relative clause)
The girl who is wearing the blue dress is my sister. (Cô gái mà đang mang cái đầm xanh chính là chị tôi.)
Danh từ “the girl” chưa xác định vì thế cần một mệnh đề quan hệ “who is wearing the blue dress” để xác định đó là cô gái nào.
2. Mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định (non-restrictive/ non-defining relative clause)
My aunt, who is sitting next to you, is a doctor. (Cô của tôi, người đang ngồi cạnh bạn, là một bác sĩ.)
3. Mệnh đề quan hệ nối tiếp
Mary tore Tom’s letter, which made him sad. (Mary đã xé bức thư của Tom, điều này đã khiến anh ấy rất buồn.)
V. Giới từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ
VI. Cách biến đổi mệnh đề quan hệ
Xét ví dụ sau:
The teacher is Mr. Pike. We studied with him last year.
VII. Bài tập
Exercise 1: Combine each pair of sentences using a relative pronoun or relative adverb.
1. She is the most intelligent woman. I’ve ever met this woman.
2. This doctor is famous. You visited him yesterday.
3. These children are orphans. She is taking care of these children.
4. The two young men are not good persons. You are acquainted with them.
5. My father goes swimming every day. You met him this morning.
6. The man is my father. I respect this man most.
7. The man is my father. I respect his opinion most.
8. Mary and Margaret are twins. You met them yesterday.
9. I’ll introduce you to the man. His support is necessary for your project.
10. The middle-aged man is the director. My father is talking to him.
11. The boy is my cousin. You make fun of him.
12. The student is from china. He sits next to me.
13. I thanked the woman. This woman had helped me.
14. The professor is excellent. I am taking his course.
15. Mr. Smith said he was too busy to speak to me. I had come to see him.
16. I saw a lot of people and horses. They went to market.
17. Tom has three sisters. All of them are married.
18. I recently went back to Paris. It is still as beautiful as a pearl.
19. I recently went back to Paris. I was born in Paris nearly 50 years ago.
20. Do you know the music? It is being played on the radio.
21. You didn’t tell us the reason. We have to cut down our daily expenses for that reason.
22. The day was rainy. She left on that day.
23. I’ve sent him two letters. He has received neither of them.
24. That man is an artist. I don’t remember the man’s name.
25. One of the elephants had only one tusk. We saw these elephants at the zoo.
26. That car belongs to Dr. Clark. Its engine is very good.
27. You sent me a present. Thank you very much for it.
28. This is Mrs. Jones. Her son won the championship last year.
29. Rod Lee has won an Oscar. I know his sister.
30. Is this the style of hair? Your wife wants to have it.
31. A man answered the phone. He said Tom was out.
32. 7.05 is the time. My plane arrives then.
33. Max isn’t home yet. That worries me.
34. Do you know the building? The windows of the building are painted green.
35. Last week I went to see the house. I used to live in it.
Exercise 2: Use Relative adverb to combine each pair of sentences below:
1. This is the house. We often stay in this house in summer.
2. I’ll show you the second hand bookshop. You can find valuable books in this shop.
3. I have not decided the day. I’ll go to London on that day.
4. He was born on the day. His father was away on that day.
5. The book is a telephone directory. We can look up telephone numbers in this book.
6. Mrs. Brown rang Dr. Brown. He was going to carry out an urgent operation at that moment.
7. The airport is the most modern one. We’re going to arrive at this airport.
8. She doesn’t want to speak of the cause. She divorced her husband of this cause.
9. The days were the saddest ones. I lived far from home on those days.
10. I never forget the park. We met each other for the first time at this park.
Exercise 3: Use a Relative pronoun preceded by a preposition to combine each pair of sentences below:
1. This is a rare opportunity. You should take advantage of it to get a better job.
2. The boy is my cousin. You made fun of him.
3. This matter is of great importance. You should pay attention to it.
4. The woman lives next door to me. You gave place to her on the bus.
5. The examination lasted two days. I was successful in this examination.
6. This is the result of our work. I’m pleased with it.
7. There is a No parking sign. I do not take notice of it.
8. Mr. Brown is the man. I am responsible to him for my work.
9. Do you see my pen? I have just written the lesson with it.
10. We are crossing the meadow. We flew kites over it in our childhood.
Exercise 4: Choose the best answer:
1. That’s my friend, _______________ comes from Japan.
A. which B. who C. whom D. where.
2. The plants which______________ in the living room need a lot of water.
A. are B. be C. is D. was
3. She’s the woman_______________ sister looks after the baby for us.
A. who B. which C. that’s D. whose
4. That’s the doctor for________________ Cliff works.
A. that B. which C. whom D. whose
5. Marie,______________ I met at the party, called me last night.
A. that B. whom C. which D. whose
6. I remember Alice,______________ rode the bus to school with.
A. I B. whom I C. which I D. who
7. I used to enjoy the summer, ______________ we had a big family picnic.
A. where B. when C. which D. that
8. Tell me about the city ______________ you grew up.
A. that B. where C. which D. ø
9. Anna found the book that ________________ wanted at the bookshop.
A. ø B. where C. she D. which
10. Please remember to take back to the library all the books ________ are due this week.
A. ø B. that C. when D. they
11. He likes the dress. Huong is wearing it
A. He likes the dress which Huong is wearing it
B. He likes the dress Huong is wearing it
C. He likes the dress who Huong is wearing
D. He likes the dress Huong is wearing
12. Most of the classmates couldn't come. He invited them to the birthday party
A. Most of the classmates he invited to the birthday party couldn't come.
B. Most of the classmates he was invited to the birthday party couldn't come.
C. Most of the classmates that he invited them to the birthday party couldn't come.
D. Most of the classmates which he invited to the birthday party couldn't come.
13. What was the name of the man? You met and talked to him this morning.
A. What was the name of the man who you met and talked to him this morning?
B. What was the name of the man you met and talked to this morning?
C. What was the name of the man you met and talked to whom this morning?
D. What was the name of the man whose you met and talked to this morning?
14. The church is over 500 years old. Our class visited it last summer.
A. The church which our class visited it last summer is over 500 years old.
B. The church that our class visited it last summer is over 500 years old.
C. The church which our class visited last summer is over 500 years old.
D. The church our class visit last summer is over 500 years old.
15. The song says about the love of two young students. She is singing the song.
A. The song which she is singing it says about the love of two young students.
B. The song she is singing says about the love of two young students.
C. The song says about the love of two young students which she is singing.
D. The song says about the love of two young students that she is singing it.
VIII. Đáp án
Exercise 1: Combine each pair of sentences using a relative pronoun or relative adverb.
1. She is the most intelligent woman whom I’ve ever met.
2. This doctor whom you visited yesterday is famous.
3. These children whom she is taking care of are orphans.
4. The two young men whom you are acquainted with are not good persons.
5. My father whom you met this morning goes swimming everyday.
6. The man whom I respect most is my father.
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